This book studies the impact of cleavages on electoral choices. Based on a case study of Switzerland, it analyses how cleavages divide voters into voting blocs and how this influences Swiss voting behaviour and the Swiss party system. The first part examines the development of salient cleavages such as religion, social class, rural-urban, and language between 1971 and 2011. Behavioural changes among voters and changes in the size of social groups are explored as explanatory factors for the decline of cleavage voting. The second part proposes a contextual perspective analysis of the current impact of cleavages using both individual and contextual factors. These factors are also combined to examine interaction effects between the individual and the context. Finally, the third part analyses whether the impact of cleavages has harmonised across different contexts (Swiss cantons) over time.
From the preface: "This text is designed to explain and synthesize the functioning and relationships of numerous Defense, Joint, and Army organizations, systems, and processes involved in the development and sustainment of trained and ready forces for the Combatant Commanders. It is designed to be used by the faculty and students at the U.S. Army War College (as well as other training and educational institutions) as they improve their knowledge and understanding of "How the Army Runs." We are proud of the value that senior commanders and staffs have placed in this text over the years and are pleased to continue to provide this reference. The text is revised every two years as we strive to capture the most up-to-date information available. This involves the synthesis of a wide array of published and unpublished references from a variety of sources. Necessarily, there is a point in time at which updates must stop. This volume contains our best description of the systems, processes, and organizations as of March 2013. From the foreword: "You need this handbook. If there was ever a time when leaders and staffs - military and civilian - needed a guide to understand our systems and process it is right now. Having been in a continuous state of conflict for the past 12 years and entering a history-impacting era of scarcity, you must use this reference to be an effective steward of our profession. This updated volume, the 29th Edition of How the Army Runs; A Senior Leader Reference Handbook, 2013.2014, is exceptionally relevant. Leaders who understand and can use the systems and processes documented and explained in this work will be able to keep the United States Army the best fighting force in the world, even in the face of uncertainty and declining resources. Most of us were raised in this profession to find the best terrain - the key terrain - and then seize it or control it. Teammates and fellow leaders, this document, the intellectual understanding of how the Army runs, is key terrain for service at the senior leadership level.""
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